PLD (pulsed Laser Deposition)
Pulsed laser deposition is a physical vapor deposition process, carried out in a vacuum system. In PLD, a pulsed laser is focused onto a target of the material to be deposited. Each laser pulse vaporizes or ablates a small amount of the material creating a plasma plume.The ablated material is ejected from the target in a highly forward-directed plume. The high energetic species ablated from the target are bombarding the substrate surface. When the condensation rate is high enough, a thermal equilibrium can be reached and the film grows on the substrate surface.